Neurofeedback Research Articles

Dating back to the 1960s and 1970s, neurofeedback, also known as EEG biofeedback and neurobiofeedback, is an excellent technology for improving brain-based disorders. Neurofeedback has been shown to improve athletic and academic performance, memory, insomnia, and other sleep issues. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and attention deficit disorder (ADD), both respond very well to neurofeedback.


During the past three decades, a series of case and controlled group studies examining the effects of EEG biofeedback have reported improved attention and behavioral control, increased cortical activation on quantitative electroencephalographic examination, and gains on tests of intelligence and academic achievement in response to this type of treatment. This review paper critically examines the empirical evidence, applying the efficacy guidelines jointly established by the Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback (AAPB) and the International Society for Neuronal Regulation (ISNR). On the basis of these scientific principles, EEG biofeedback was determined to be “probably efficacious” for the treatment of ADHD. Although significant clinical improvement was reported in approximately 75% of the patients in each of the published research studies.


As such, the use of EEG neurofeedback, a self-regulation method based on the paradigm of operant conditioning, might be a promising treatment modality. Preliminary results for insomnia and successful applications for other disorders suggest that this treatment can have the necessary stabilizing effects on the EEG activity, possibly resulting in a normalizing effect on daytime as well as nighttime functioning.

Anxiety And Depression

In evaluating the studies in the overall broad area of the neurofeedback treatment of anxiety disorders, EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) qualifies for the evidence-based designation of being an efficacious treatment. EEG biofeedback is an exciting, cutting-edge technology that offers an additional treatment alternative for modifying dysfunctional, biologic brain patterns that are associated with various psychiatric conditions

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Veterans experience a considerable course of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and because of several psychosocial issues, traditional interventions and traditional intervention settings are ineffective for this population. A new cutting‐edge approach, known as neurofeedback, trains clients to control and manipulate their central nervous system and ameliorate physiological symptoms of stress disorders. The authors delineate how neurofeedback can be an effective and innovative intervention for PTSD experienced by the military population.

Northwestern University:

 The clinical use of an alpha asymmetry protocol in the neurofeedback treatment of depression. Two case studies

In this study we are presenting case studies of two depressed women who were trained with more than 34 sessions each of EEG biofeedback (neurofeedback) using an Alpha Asymmetry protocol, the purpose of this training was to determine if depression could be alleviated when the subjects learned to increase the activation of the left hemisphere and/ or decrease the activation of the right hemisphere. The MMPI-2 was administered before and after training to measure changes in personality factors, including depression. The results suggest that Alpha Asymmetry neurofeedback training may be an effective adjunct to psychotherapy in the treatment of certain types of mood disorders.

For many other studies:

The International Society for Neuroregulation & Research maintains a comprehensive bibliography of research articles discussing conditions that are positively affected by neurofeedback by D. Corydon Hammond, PhD, Professor, Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, University of Utah School of Medicine and D. Allen Novian, PhD, LMFT, LPC-S, Adjunct Professor, Neurofeedback and Biofeedback, St. Mary’s University. ISNR also has an editorial in defense of EEG biofeedback.

The Association for Applied Psychophysiology and Biofeedback published Evidence-Based Practice in Biofeedback and Neurofeedback (3rd ed.) which provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date evidence-based and neuro-scientifically supported information on the subject. They also have more information for consumers.